Telegram App Used in Saint Petersburg Bombing, Says Russia

Russia’s FSB security agency on Monday said the Telegram messaging service was used by those behind the Saint Petersburg metro bombing, the latest salvo by authorities after they threatened to block the app.

“During the probe into the April 3 terrorist attack in the Saint Petersburg metro, the FSB received reliable information about the use of Telegram by the suicide bomber, his accomplices and their mastermind abroad to conceal their criminal plans,” the FSB said in a statement.

They used Telegram “at each stage of the preparation of this terrorist attack,” it said.

Fifteen people were killed in the suicide bombing, which was claimed by the little-known Imam Shamil Battalion, a group suspected of links to Al-Qaeda.

Telegram is a free Russian-designed messaging app that lets people exchange messages, photos and videos in groups of up to 5,000. It has attracted about 100 million users since its launch in 2013.

But the service has drawn the ire of critics who say it can let criminals and terrorists communicate without fear of being tracked by police, pointing in particular to its use by Islamic State jihadists.

The FSB charged that “the members of the international terrorist organisations on Russian territory use Telegram”.

The app is already under fire in Moscow after Russia’s state communications watchdog on Friday threatened to ban it, saying the company behind the service had failed to submit company details for registration.

Telegram App Used in Saint Petersburg Bombing, Says Russia
Telegram’s secretive Russian chief executive, Pavel Durov, who has previously refused to bow to government regulation that would compromise the privacy of users, had called that threat “paradoxical” on one of his social media accounts.

He said it would force users, including “high-ranking Russian officials” to communicate via apps based in the United States like WhatsApp.

The 32-year-old had previously created Russia’s popular VKontakte social media site, before founding Telegram in the United States.

Durov said in April that the app had “consistently defended our users’ privacy” and “never made any deals with governments.”

The app is one of several targeted in a legal crackdown by Russian authorities on the internet and on social media sites in particular.

Since January 1, internet companies have been required to store all users’ personal data at data centres in Russia and provide it to the authorities on demand.

Draft legislation that has already secured initial backing in parliament would make it illegal for messaging services to have anonymous users.

 

Telegram App Used in Saint Petersburg Bombing, Says Russia

Russia’s FSB security agency on Monday said the Telegram messaging service was used by those behind the Saint Petersburg metro bombing, the latest salvo by authorities after they threatened to block the app.

“During the probe into the April 3 terrorist attack in the Saint Petersburg metro, the FSB received reliable information about the use of Telegram by the suicide bomber, his accomplices and their mastermind abroad to conceal their criminal plans,” the FSB said in a statement.

They used Telegram “at each stage of the preparation of this terrorist attack,” it said.

Fifteen people were killed in the suicide bombing, which was claimed by the little-known Imam Shamil Battalion, a group suspected of links to Al-Qaeda.

Telegram is a free Russian-designed messaging app that lets people exchange messages, photos and videos in groups of up to 5,000. It has attracted about 100 million users since its launch in 2013.

But the service has drawn the ire of critics who say it can let criminals and terrorists communicate without fear of being tracked by police, pointing in particular to its use by Islamic State jihadists.

The FSB charged that “the members of the international terrorist organisations on Russian territory use Telegram”.

The app is already under fire in Moscow after Russia’s state communications watchdog on Friday threatened to ban it, saying the company behind the service had failed to submit company details for registration.

Telegram App Used in Saint Petersburg Bombing, Says Russia
Telegram’s secretive Russian chief executive, Pavel Durov, who has previously refused to bow to government regulation that would compromise the privacy of users, had called that threat “paradoxical” on one of his social media accounts.

He said it would force users, including “high-ranking Russian officials” to communicate via apps based in the United States like WhatsApp.

The 32-year-old had previously created Russia’s popular VKontakte social media site, before founding Telegram in the United States.

Durov said in April that the app had “consistently defended our users’ privacy” and “never made any deals with governments.”

The app is one of several targeted in a legal crackdown by Russian authorities on the internet and on social media sites in particular.

Since January 1, internet companies have been required to store all users’ personal data at data centres in Russia and provide it to the authorities on demand.

Draft legislation that has already secured initial backing in parliament would make it illegal for messaging services to have anonymous users.

Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos Says Excited to Keep Investing in India After Meeting PM Modi

American online retail giant Amazon, which has committed investments to the tune of $5 billion in India, will “keep investing and growing in India”, its chief Jeff Bezos has said.

After his meeting with Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Bezos tweeted: “Terrific meeting with @narendramodi. Always impressed, energized by optimism and invention in India. Excited to keep investing and growing.”

Bezos was among the 20 US business leaders who interacted with Modi as part of a roundtable interaction. Others in the group included Apple CEO Tim Cook, Google’s Sunder Pichai, John Chambers from Cisco, Shantanu Narayen from Adobe and Ajay Banga from MasterCard.

Amazon, which has recently completed four years of operations in India, is locked in an intense battle for leadership with homegrown e-tailer Flipkart.

Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos Says Excited to Keep Investing in India After Meeting PM Modi
The company has been aggressively investing in setting up fulfilment centres across India to ensure speedy delivery to consumers. It has 41 such warehouses across 13 states.

Its seller base in the country has also increased to 2 lakh currently, from 100 in 2013.

Previously, Bezos has said the company will keep investing in the Indian market to strengthen technology and infrastructure.

“Our India team is moving fast and delivering for customers and sellers… It’s still Day 1 for e-commerce in India, and I assure you that we’ll keep investing in technology and infrastructure,” Bezos had said.

 

Cybercrime-Related Losses Rose 24 Percent in 2016, Says FBI

Losses from cybercrimes rose 24 percent in 2016 to over $1.33 billion (roughly Rs. 8,589 crores), according to a report by the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3).

The centre, which was set up in 2000 to receive complaints of internet crime, received 300,000 complaints during the year from hacking victims.

Businesses lost $360 million to cyber criminals, who tricked them into wiring money using fraudulent emails that appeared to be from corporate executives and suppliers, according to the report released on Wednesday.

IC3 said it received 2,673 complaints last year from victims of ransomware, with losses totalling over $2.4 million.

Cybercrime-Related Losses Rose 24 Percent in 2016, Says FBI
In May, the WannaCry ransomware attack infected 300,000 computers in more than 150 countries, disrupting factories, hospitals, shops and schools.

Ransomware is a form of malware that encrypts data on infected machines, then typically asks users to pay ransoms in hard-to-trace digital currencies to get an electronic key so they can retrieve their data.

 

Former RBI Governor Says Almost Resigned On Differences With P Chidambaram

New Delhi: Former Reserve Bank of India Governor Y V Reddy has written in his autobiography that he once contemplated resignation and had to even offer an unconditional apology to then Finance Minister P Chidambaram. In ‘Advice and Dissent: My Life in Public Service’, being released on Tuesday, Mr Reddy describes his differences of opinion as RBI governor with Mr Chidambaram. These led him to also think of putting in his papers. The issue concerned opening the banking system to foreign ownership, which came to a head with Mr Chidambaram in 2008.

Mr Reddy was governor of the central bank between September 2003 and September 2008.

Mr Reddy narrated an incident of a meeting where Mr Chidambaram told him: “Governor, this is a national commitment made to global financial community. How do we justify reversal of such a policy? Is it just because there is a change in the incumbency of the government? Do we review our commitments every time a governor or the RBI changes?”

Mr Reddy, according to the book, told him that “it has serious irreversible consequences. I believe it is better to go back on our commitment at this stage, in national interest.”

“But I believe that it is in our national interest,” Mr Chidambaram was quoted as telling the RBI governor.

Mr Reddy has written that he confided his troubles to then Economic Affairs Secretary Rakesh Mohan.

“‘Rakesh,’ I told him, ‘it is better I leave this job. I believe that the issue is very critical to our national interest. I think opening up of foreign banks should not be done at this stage at all. Still, if the government feels that this has to be done, it has to be done. But I will not be able to put my heart in it’,” Mr Reddy wrote.

“So, better I quietly leave the job,” Mr Reddy added.

Y V Reddy was governor of the RBI between September 2003 and September 2008

 

He also wrote that despite Mr Chidambaram’s unwillingness to relieve him as governor, “I felt that there was a growing distance between us as months passed by. His (Chidambaram) image as a reformer pushing for double-digit growth was, in his view, being dented by my caution to the extent of resisting implementation of some of his policies.”

“At one stage, he said that he was cancelling his foreign tour because he could not face them with nothing to report on reform. His frustration was confirmed later, I think in early 2008,” Mr Reddy wrote. When he met the minister, Mr Chidambaram said the RBI was not adequately reciprocating by progressing with reforms. “I expressed my unconditional apology to him and conveyed that I would keep in mind the issue of being supportive,” Mr Reddy said, describing how the matter ended.

However, on the overall experience of working as RBI Governor “closely” with Mr Chidambaram for over four years, Mr Reddy wrote: “Most of our tensions could be described as constructive or as discord that ultimately gave rise to better ideas or outcomes.”

Another contentious issue was that of farm-loan waivers, that continues to be controversial.

“I opposed the proposal made in February 2008 to write off loans to farmers amounting to Rs. 60,000 crore. I argued my case before the Finance Minister, and at one stage before the Prime Minister accompanied by the Finance Minister. Economic logic including preservation of credit culture was in favour of RBI’s position,” Mr Reddy says.

However, “I could see the government was acting out of broader concern for the welfare of farmers. I suggested that the government should pay the money to the banks on behalf of the farmers.”

Thus, a different aspect of the situation dawned on Mr Reddy.

“I believe that as governor, I could advance arguments from the point of view of money and credit, but I had no legitimacy to question the judgement of the government on social order,” he said.

In fact, the autobiography sets out Mr Reddy’s unique perspective as a central banker on the relationship between government and the RBI .

“It is hard to find the government’s version of dealing with the central banks. Since I worked in the government also, and dealt with the RBI, a part of the story relates to this,” he wrote in the introduction.

Mr Reddy, who famously described the RBI as “totally free, within the limits set by the government”, has served as the Union Finance Secretary and was the Chairman of the latest 14th Finance Commission in 2013-14.

Farm loan waivers have only added to the gigantic non-performing assets (NPAs), or bad loans, of banks. Mr Reddy has emphasised elsewhere that there is no “political economy consensus” on tackling the mounting problem of bad loans of banks, which cannot be resolved by their simple recapitalisation.

Women Are More Prone to Osteoarthritis Than Men, Says Study

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a long-term chronic disease characterized by the deterioration of cartilage in joints which results in bones rubbing together and creating stiffness, pain, and impaired movement. The disease most commonly affects the joints in the knees, hands, feet, and spine and is relatively common in shoulder and hip joints. While OA is related to ageing, it is also associated with a variety of both modifiable and non- modifiable risk factors, including: obesity, lack of exercise, genetic predisposition, bone density, occupational injury, trauma, and gender.

1. Osteoarthritis is the single most common cause of disability in older adults.

2. The Global Burden of Disease Study reports that the burden of musculoskeletal disorders is much larger than estimated in previous assessments and accounts for 6.8% of DALYs worldwide.

3. An estimated 10% to 15% of all adults aged over 60 have some degree of OA, with prevalence higher among women than men.

According to experts, women are by nature three times as susceptible to the condition due to several factors. Alexander Shikhman, M.D., PhD, founder of the Institute for Specialized Medicine in Del Mar, Calif., and medical director of Restorative Remedies, reveals that joints damaged by osteoarthritis also appear to vary by gender. Fluid in the knee holds clues why women are more prone to it. They have found clear differences in the messages that cells in the synovial fluid of this joint are sending and receiving via tiny pieces of RNA, called microRNA, in males and females with the common and debilitating condition osteoarthritis.

osteoarthritis

Today’s treatment addresses symptoms, like inflammation and pain, and the bottom line for some patients is knee replacement. Synovial fluid is known to provide clues about joint health, so Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University decided to look at what messages, cells in the region were sending and receiving. They did this by looking inside travelling compartments in the fluid called exosomes, says Fulzele, corresponding author. This synovial fluid is there to help protect the cartilage which provides padding between our bones. They discovered that there are differences between males and females in the messages cells are exchanging within the fluid.The study authors believe this is why the disease presents itself more in women than in men. The researchers discovered gender differences in exosome content.

They believe these are due to changing estrogen levels in women. Lower estrogen levels, like those that occur following menopause, trigger production of more cells that destroy bone. What we found is there is no change in the number of exosomes, but a change in the micro RNA cargo they carry,” Fulzele says.

estrogen

They isolated the mostly round exosomes in discarded human synovial fluid from patients with and without osteoarthritis. They found in the males that 69 microRNAs were significantly down regulated and 45 were up-regulated. In females, however there were 91 down-regulated versus 53 up-regulated.

Females were more impacted: in total, they had more than 70 biological processes altered compared to males who had closer to 50, the researchers report. Fulzele and Hunter suspect that the gender differences they found in exosome content helps explain gender differences in disease incidence and that estrogen was key to the differences in the females. Micro-RNA that should be sending messages that are good for the joints, like promoting estrogen signaling and collagen-producing cells is turned off or otherwise altered in women.
Lower estrogen levels, like those that occur following menopause, prompt production of more cells that destroy bone. In this environment, those bone-consuming cells also tend to live longer, which can result in a net bone loss. Conversely, reduced osteoarthritis risk is considered a benefit of hormone replacement therapy.

All cells excrete exosomes as one way to communicate. They carry cargo like protein, lipids as well as micro-RNA, which can impact the expression and actions of many different genes. In the case of the synovial fluid, Fulzele says the exosome source is likely in the synovial membrane that lines the joints and produces the fluid. Wear and tear that comes with aging, and can be accelerated and aggravated by injury, can inflame the membrane, which may alter the cargo in the exosomes and the messages they carry, Fulzele says.
While osteoarthritis is considered normal wear and tear, it’s multi factorial, says Hunter, the Dr. Charles Goodrich Henry and Carolyn Howell Henry Distinguished Chair at MCG.

“There is a genetic component. Some of us have stronger cartilage than others. Some of us are made differently so the angle of our joints puts more pressure in some places.” Risk factors include injury, overuse, increasing age, obesity, a family history, as well as being female, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sports with repetitive high impact, like running and basketball, can increase the risk.

Foxconn Says Pursuit of Toshiba Deal ‘Not Over’

The head of Taiwan’s tech giant Foxconn said Thursday its pursuit of Toshiba “is not yet over”, a day after the Japanese firm announced it preferred another group of bidders to acquire its prized chip business.

Foxconn, also known as Hon Hai, is controlled by billionaire Terry Gou and reportedly had Apple as a financial backer in its multi-billion dollar bid for Toshiba’s memory chip unit, seen as crucial for the cash-strapped Japanese firm to turn itself around.

Toshiba said Wednesday it would hold exclusive talks with a consortium of US, South Korean and state-backed Japanese investors, dashing Gou’s ambitions.

But the Foxconn chairman vowed to keep pursuing the acquisition, saying the Taiwanese firm still has a chance.

“The Toshiba case is not yet over. It is very similar to the Sharp deal,” Gou told shareholders at an annual meeting in New Taipei City.

He was referring to his takeover last year of the Japanese electronics firm for $3.7 billion, a move he described as “really worth it.”

Gou is known for his aggressive dealmaking prowess, shown by his dogged determination to acquire Sharp despite concerns over the Japanese firm’s mounting losses.

Foxconn Says Pursuit of Toshiba Deal 'Not Over'

“We still have a big chance,” he said at Thursday’s meeting of the Toshiba quest, adding there were still “a lot of variables”.

The inclusion of Japanese investors in the selected bidding group by Toshiba will ease reported government concerns about losing a sensitive technology to foreign owners.

But a Foxconn official criticized Japanese authorities for taking a protectionist approach.

“There’s no end to their corporate crisis if they are not able to open up,” said Tai Jeng-wu, who took over as president of Sharp after Foxconn’s buyout.

The Taiwanese firm is the world’s largest contract electronics maker and is best-known for assembling products for international brands such as Apple and Sony.

Gou said earlier this year he was mulling a $7 billion investment to make flat panels in the United States in a joint project with Japan’s Softbank.

He also said Foxconn aimed to increase investment in China this year to try to boost Sharp’s market share in the country.

 

Toshiba Says It’s Willing to Talk With Western Digital About Chip Unit Sale

Toshiba said it was open to talks with Western Digital in their dispute over the sale of the Japanese conglomerate’s prized chip unit – an apparent olive branch after it chose another suitor as preferred bidder.

The two have been feuding bitterly and Western Digital, which jointly runs Toshiba’s main semiconductor plant, has sought a US court injunction to prevent any deal that does not have its consent.

The softer tone from Toshiba comes on a day of further indignities as the crisis-wracked conglomerate saw itself demoted to the second section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange and estimated bigger losses for the past financial year.

This week it chose a consortium of Bain Capital and Japanese government investors as preferred bidder for the unit, the world’s No. 2 producer of NAND flash chips. It wants to clinch a deal, worth some $18 billion, by June 28, the day of its shareholders meeting.

“Western Digital used to be a good partner, so we want to continue talks. I’m disappointed with the current dispute,” Toshiba CEO Satoshi Tsunakawa told a news conference, adding it was important that they joined forces to better compete against bigger rival Samsung Electronics.

“We want Western Digital to jointly invest to fight against Samsung. It will be so disappointing if we can’t do so because of the dispute,” he said.

But in a sign that tensions were still high, Tsunakawa also said Toshiba was not going to be the first to propose the US firm join the consortium and it was still considering whether to block Western Digital employees not based at the plant from accessing joint venture data servers.

Toshiba Says It's Willing to Talk With Western Digital About Chip Unit Sale

Tsunakawa also said he did not expect any changes to the make-up of the consortium before June 28.

Western Digital’s offer had not found favour on price and because the US firm wanted to take control of the unit, he said, adding that he expected executives from Toshiba to still be running operations after the sale.

His comments come after sources familiar with matter said earlier this week that the Bain consortium members had made resolving the dispute with Western Digital a condition of their investment.

Representatives for Western Digital were not immediately available to comment.

Hynix hurdles?
South Korean chipmaker SK Hynix Inc is also part of the Bain consortium and its membership has raised concerns that the winning bid may find it difficult to clear anti-trust reviews.

Its presence has made Western Digital reluctant to join the group in its current form due to worries that high-level technology for NAND chips, which provide long-term data storage, could be leaked to its rival, sources familiar with the matter have said.

But Tsunakawa said SK Hynix would not be holding any equity and would not be involved in management – an arrangement that was unlikely to raise regulatory red flags and would prevent leaks of key technology information.

SK Hynix, which is relatively weak in NAND flash memory chips, has said it has joined the group because it sees new business opportunities. It will provide half of the JPY 850 billion ($7.6 billion or roughly Rs. 49,262 crores) that Bain plans to put up in the form of financing, sources have said.

Earlier in the day, Toshiba flagged a net loss of around $9 billion (roughly Rs. 58,060 crores) for the year ended in March with negative shareholders’ equity of around $5.2 billion, both worse than expected on an increase in liabilities at bankrupt nuclear unit Westinghouse and potential legal damages.

With negative shareholder equity confirmed, the Tokyo Stock Exchange said it would move Toshiba’s listing to the second section of the bourse from August 1 – the latest in a series of humiliating developments since December for a firm that has been in business for more than 140 years.

Toshiba also received regulatory approval to delay filing its annual earnings by more than a month amid a prolonged accounting investigation at Westinghouse. It is the sixth time since 2015 that Toshiba has delayed an earnings filing.

Regulators have now given Toshiba until August 10 instead of June 30 to submit the filing. Failure to gain an extension would have put the troubled company’s stock exchange listing in further jeopardy, although it still needs to dig itself out of negative shareholders’ equity by the end of this financial year to stay listed.

 

Telegram App Used in Saint Petersburg Bombing, Says Russia

Russia’s FSB security agency on Monday said the Telegram messaging service was used by those behind the Saint Petersburg metro bombing, the latest salvo by authorities after they threatened to block the app.

“During the probe into the April 3 terrorist attack in the Saint Petersburg metro, the FSB received reliable information about the use of Telegram by the suicide bomber, his accomplices and their mastermind abroad to conceal their criminal plans,” the FSB said in a statement.

They used Telegram “at each stage of the preparation of this terrorist attack,” it said.

Fifteen people were killed in the suicide bombing, which was claimed by the little-known Imam Shamil Battalion, a group suspected of links to Al-Qaeda.

Telegram is a free Russian-designed messaging app that lets people exchange messages, photos and videos in groups of up to 5,000. It has attracted about 100 million users since its launch in 2013.

But the service has drawn the ire of critics who say it can let criminals and terrorists communicate without fear of being tracked by police, pointing in particular to its use by Islamic State jihadists.

The FSB charged that “the members of the international terrorist organisations on Russian territory use Telegram”.

The app is already under fire in Moscow after Russia’s state communications watchdog on Friday threatened to ban it, saying the company behind the service had failed to submit company details for registration.

Telegram App Used in Saint Petersburg Bombing, Says Russia

Telegram’s secretive Russian chief executive, Pavel Durov, who has previously refused to bow to government regulation that would compromise the privacy of users, had called that threat “paradoxical” on one of his social media accounts.

He said it would force users, including “high-ranking Russian officials” to communicate via apps based in the United States like WhatsApp.

The 32-year-old had previously created Russia’s popular VKontakte social media site, before founding Telegram in the United States.

Durov said in April that the app had “consistently defended our users’ privacy” and “never made any deals with governments.”

The app is one of several targeted in a legal crackdown by Russian authorities on the internet and on social media sites in particular.

Since January 1, internet companies have been required to store all users’ personal data at data centres in Russia and provide it to the authorities on demand.

Draft legislation that has already secured initial backing in parliament would make it illegal for messaging services to have anonymous users.

 

Remembering DU days: Actor Gulshan Grover says nobody leads a wild life at SRCC

“ I had to get more than 90% to get in. So, I couldn’t contain my happiness when the admission was confirmed,” says the actor, The years spent at DU gave him strength, vision and a foundation for his acting career.“As DU’s winter festivals [cultural fests] were fantastic and interactive, I rose as an actor,” says Grover. who has been praised for the portrayal of villainous characters in films such as Ram Lakhan (1989) and Dilwale (1994). Grover, who lived on the outskirts of Delhi, had to change three buses everyday to reach the university. Speaking fondly of that time, he says, “I used to walk six-seven kilometres, from my place, to Zakhira [in West Delhi] and then take a bus to Kashmiri Gate or Kamla Nagar to reach the University.”

 Shri Ram College of Commerce
Studying at SRCC was an eye-opening experience, as he saw students from different backgrounds. “It was interesting to meet kids, who were sure to inherit various industries, after learning commerce at the college. Then there were also common people, like me, who did exceptionally well, such as Rajat Sharma [senior journalist] and Vijay Goel [Union Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports], or a few others whose parents had made certain achievements in life,” he says.

“On Sundays, we’d have big fantastic, legit parties. Shri Ram is not a wild college. It’s not a college where anybody can afford to be wild”

Grover shares that he would often stay back at the hostel, to rehearse for plays and at times for group studies too. “I loved the life of hostellers. I envied them. We looked at the hostel boys as ‘Oh my god, what a life, how lucky they are’. They didn’t have to go back [home] and stand in the queue in the morning, to wait for the university special bus and dread missing it because then one would have to change three buses to reach college! They would go back to the hostel, change, and eat some nice lunch and rest.” Grover adds that he would go outside the campus with his friends, to the little shacks for bread pakoras and tea. “We would have a khata (account) running somewhere (laughs), where we ate and pay weekly or monthly, depending on the money in our pocket,” he says. Another thing he enjoyed about his time at SRCC, was the “fantastic” and “legit” parties on Sundays. However, he adds, “Shri Ram is not a wild college. It’s not a college where anybody can afford to be wild.”

Grover became the president of the Fine Arts Society at SRCC and still remembers his camaraderie with his seniors. “Arun Jaitley [present Finance Minister] was our senior. We learnt a lot from his dynamic leadership qualities. Rajat Sharma was a heavy duty winner in debates and was fiery and would work in a systematic way. Being the president of the society, I was responsible for sending him to different colleges in the university, and I used to be 100 percent sure that he would bring a gold medal for the college,” he says. .

“Arun Jaitley [present Finance Minister] was our senior. We learnt a lot from his dynamic leadership qualities. Rajat Sharma was a heavy duty winner in debates and was fiery and would work in a systematic way.”

When he ventured in Bollywood, it was the lessons learnt at SRCC that made him take wise career decisions. “The film industry wanted you to have work [experience] in films. There was no clear way to become an actor in Bollywood. As I had not been to Mumbai, I didn’t even know where it was and how it worked. But I had learnt the value of building a brand because of the commerce I studied at SRCC. It was extremely useful to me in understanding and deciphering the entertainment business when I came here (Mumbai) to work in Bollywood,” he signs off.